Cancer is one of the most popular diseases in the medical world in recent years. Pathologist Prof. Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı at Anadolu Health Center said, “The frozen method performed by the surgeon and the pathology specialist in the operating room, the sample taken from the tumor tissue during the surgery is evaluated by the pathology specialist and the result is reported to the surgeon in 15 minutes.”
Declaring that the number of cancer cases increased in Türkiye as well as in the whole world, but the developments in diagnosis and treatment have gained a strong momentum, Pathologist Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı at Anadolu Health Center, said, “In particular, developments in the field of molecular pathology provide important information about which medication and treatment will be effective in the patient. In pathology, a method that made significant contributions to the treatment management of cancer patients is ‘Frozen Section.’ In this way, surgical treatment of cancer patients can be managed more effectively.”
Pathology has a major role in treatment
In addition to the diagnosis of cancer of the pathology, as well as the treatment of the disease and how to watch many tests are a branch of the pathology expert. Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı said, “The development of target -oriented treatment methods known as ‘intelligent drugs’ used in cancer treatments today further strengthened the place and importance of pathology in cancer treatment. Since smart drugs should be used only in cancer patients who will benefit from these drugs, it is possible to determine these patients with some molecular tests in pathology.”
The method called Frozen Section is one of the most difficult procedures in the pathology practice. Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı said, “Briefly called ‘Frozen’ is a procedure during surgery. If we express it more clearly; this is an exchange of ideas between the surgeon and the pathologist to accurately determine the shape, size and limits of the surgery to be performed on patients diagnosed with or suspected of cancer.”
12 hours of time goes down to 15 minutes
Normally, a tissue can be examined under the microscope to be examined under the patient’s tissues should go through a process called ‘tissue tracking’ this is a process of approximately 12-16 hours. Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı said, “Normally, the first microscopic examination can be performed after 12-16 hours after the patient is taken from the patient, while the frozen can get results in much shorter periods. In the frozen method performed by a pathologist in the operating room, the sample taken from the tumor tissue is first quickly frozen, then a section is taken and staining is started. The pathology in the operating room is evaluated by the sample pathology specialist under the microscope in the frozen room and the result is reported to the surgeon performing the surgery. In rare cases, this period is a bit extended, but the process is usually completed within 15 minutes, the diagnosis is made and the surgeon is informed about how to continue the surgery.”
The type of surgery changes after diagnosis
One of the most important points in tumor surgeries is the removal of the tumor with a safe surgical limit. Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı said, “Frozen comes in here and gives an assessment opportunity to ensure that there is no tumor tissue. If the continuity of the tumor is determined within the boundaries, the area removed until the safe border is achieved.”
Another important point in cancer surgeries is to remove the lymph node to remove the tumor mass. Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı said, “The lymphatic system in our body consists of lymphoid tissues and organs, such as lymphite nodes, as well as a part of the immune system and lymphatic vessels. Many of the cancers can jump into other organs and tissues by entering this lymphatic system. For this reason, tumor tissue and regional lymph nodes in cancer surgeries may also need to be removed. For example, in breast cancer surgeries, the decision to remove armpit lymph nodes is usually given with frozen during surgery.”
The Sentinel lymph node, which the tumor, which entered the lymphatic circulation, first went, is also examined by frozen process during surgery. Prof. Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı said, “If there is no metastasis, other lymph nodes are not removed, which is important for the patient’s quality and comfort. If the location of the lesion is not suitable for biopsy, or a biopsy is not diagnosed with cancer, but the frozen method is used for the diagnosis of tumor lesions, which are clinically suspected of cancer. With the diagnosis to be put in a short time during surgery, the shape and size of the surgery may change completely. If a benign tumor is only seen to remove this tumor mass, a much more comprehensive surgery is performed if there is cancer.”
Which cancers are frequently applied in frozen?
Frozen application is a condition that can be required at any time in tumor surgery. Therefore, Prof. Dr. Zafer Küçükodacı said, “It is implemented in almost all of the breast cancer surgeries. It is also possible to benefit from frozen method in
, colon and stomach tumors, lung tumors, brain tumors and many other tumor surgery.”
Frozen method in 3 steps
- The tissue taken from the patient is frozen in a special device.
- After the tissue is frozen and sectioned, it is subjected to the staining process.
- Finally, it is examined by a tissue pathologist and a diagnosis is made.