The yellow spot threatens to affect vision!

Yellow spot disease (age-related macular degeneration), which occurs as a result of structural deterioration in the region called the ‘macular’, which is responsible for the central vision of the eye, can cause vision loss over time. Yellow spot disease, which starts due to the aging process and other reasons, can often be diagnosed in the 2nd and 3rd stages, as it does not cause any complaints in the early period. Assoc. Dr. Selim Demir, Ophthalmology Department at Memorial Kayseri Hospital informed about yellow spot disease and its treatment.


Occurs in the nerve layer
“The disease that occurs in the nerve layer, which is about the size of a lentil grain that allows the eye to see sharply, is called yellow spot disease. Nerve cells in the retina (nerve cell) layer, located at the back of the eye, are not equally dense everywhere. The center, where the light coming into the eye is focused, is called the macula and allows us to see sharply. Eye-specific yellow pigments called lutein and zeaxanthin protect the macula from excessive light damage. Because of the color of these pigments, this is called the yellow spot. This region covers almost 5% of the retina but is responsible for almost 95% of visual function. In summary, there is a very high metabolic activity in a small area. As a result of lifelong intense metabolic activity, the macula (yellow spot) is no longer able to clear its toxic residues and the nutrition of retinal cells is impaired. The loss of function and death of nerve cells that cannot be fed is called macular degeneration.”

Slowly threatening to vision
“There are two different types of yellow spot disease, called ‘dry type’ and ‘wet type’. The dry type is the most common yellow spot disease. Fortunately, it progresses slowly as a dry type. With the onset of the disease, it takes more than 10 years for many patients to reach an advanced stage that will seriously affect vision. With the accumulation of metabolic wastes that cannot be cleaned under the dry type yellow spot, white-yellow dot foci called druzen are formed. With their increase, nerve cell destruction increases and vision decreases. Unfortunately, the age type of the disease causes serious and sudden vision loss. The resulting vision loss is painless. Wet type occurs in the form of uncontrolled abnormal vessels and bleeding and leakage from these vessels due to the vascular growth factors (VEGF) secreted by the yellow spot region as a result of nutritional defect.”

More common over the age of 60
“This disease is a disease of old age. If we cannot do many things as we used to as we get older, visual function also decreases with aging. The yellow spot, which is the most active area of ​​the eye, also loses its old performance with aging. This disease is more common in people aged 60 and over. Genetic predisposition, exposure to sunlight, smoking are among the risk factors. Since the disease is progressive, there may be milder and vague complaints in the early period, while the complaints increase in advanced stages.”

If the lines appear slanted while reading a book…
“Observing oblique lines, seeing objects larger or smaller than they are are among the early complaints of the disease. Especially when reading a book, dimpling or bending of the writings in some areas is a sign of yellow spot disease. Blurred vision, being unable to see the center of the place seen clearly, and being able to select the shores are more advanced stages. In glaucoma (eye pressure) patients, a narrowing of the visual field is observed on the shores due to damage, while the opposite is true in yellow spot disease. In other words, patients have difficulty seeing the center while they can see the shores.”


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